Tuesday, 27 September 2016

Chicago day three

I’ve arranged to be at the brewery at 9 am. The Goose Island brewery, that is. We’re brewing a wet hop beer. Never done that before, so it should be fun.

The breakfast is mobbed. The very friendly Asian hostess tells the party in front of me that there will be a 10-minute wait for a table. That could bugger up my plans. But, as there’s just me, the hostess asks if I’d like to sit at the bar. Fine by me, as long as I get my fried fix quickly.

The taxi driver takes a very different route to the brewery, joining Fulton Street as soon as possible. It takes us through a big industrial section, low workshops and factories on either side. At least there’s still some industry here. Unlike in most British towns.

Mike Siegel is already at the brewery. Obviously. It is his job, after all. He takes me for a quick spin around the brew house. It looks much the same as before. Then he shows me their new mash filter. You know, I’d never seen one of these devices before, then on both this and my last US trip I bump into one. I’m not really sure how the things work. Only that they’re very efficient.

Downstairs, there’s a brand new 2-barrel pilot plant. Which is where the wet hop beer is being made. Mashing is almost done and the wort is recirculating nicely. Tim, whom I met at the Brettanomyces Festival in Amsterdam, is looking after the brewing. While the wort froths merrily, he’s busy filling sixtel kegs from the miniature conicals. It’s the sort of brewing setting I’d love to have in my luxury shed. (The shed I dream of, not my actual shed. That’s held together with string.)

The wet hops should be along any minute. They’re being supplied by Hop Head Farms, a Michigan grower. They were picked in the early hours and are being rushed to several Chicago breweries. You don’t have much time with wet hops. They can start to mould in less than a day.

By the time the man with the hops arrives, the wort is boiling and the mash tun has been cleaned. It’s going to be used as an improvised hop back. The hops – Chinook – look very impressive: green and fresh. They smell even better. Citrusy and intense. As we rub them to release the aromas, our hands are covered in sticky resin. The hops Dolores picked last week in Amsterdam looked very similar. But were nowhere near as sticky to the touch.

There are only 50 pounds, but the hops will the mash tun almost to the brim. The boiling wort is then run over them via the sparge arm. As they become soaked, the hops turn brown and compact a little. But the still almost fill the tun.

It’s fun hanging around the mini brew house. We try a few samples drawn from the conicals. And a few bottles are cracked open to try. But I’m not my usual chipper self. Feeling a bit knacked, to be honest. A couple of hours standing around isn’t what my body wants.

After the wort is run off from the wort and cooled, Mike takes me to pick up some lunch. A sub from Italian deli Bari. We eat them in a deserted taproom. It isn’t usually open on Monday, which is why my talk is scheduled for today.

Nosh noshed, Mike suggests we take a look at the barrel warehouse. No longer over the road as it was on my last visit, it’s now a short ride away. The building is a single storey, with no indication on the outside of what’s going on inside. Which I’m pretty sure is deliberate.

It’s even more cavernous than the former location, which I guess was the idea. Mike says that he thinks they have around 20,00 barrels in total. Split pretty evenly between whisky and wine in their origin. There’s still plenty of room for more.

One thing has changed change. No longer are there just stacks of barrels. Lurking behind one such rack is a pretty row of vats. Or foeders, as everyone calls them here. That gets me thinking. Especially when Mike tells me most are empty. I’ve an idea what could fill them. A couple of ideas, actually.

Feeling totally Donald Ducked, I ask Mike if I can rest a little before tonight’s do. I need more energy than I currently have to do my talk justice. No problem. He drops me back at my hotel, where I chill for a couple of hours. Before returning in a cab.

It’s a little before 6 pm, when the taproom will be opening, and I’m surprised to see a clutch of punters waiting outside. I’m let in and check everything has been set up properly for my presentation. It’s all looking good. All I need is a beer in my hand and I’m ready to go.

There’s a pretty decent crowd. And a well-behaved one. They’re quiet and attentive. Not that I, armed with a mike, give them much opportunity to interrupt. I rattle through the presentation at a fair old pace. Must be thinking of my bed.

Once finished, I hang around to chat and shift a few books. I easily move all the copies of Bitter! I’ve brought along. The Homebrewer’s Guide to Vintage Beer is another matter. I only sell a couple. It seems most people of the home brewing persuasion in the audience already own it.

There’s a food truck outside doing Belgian frites. I order a Philly cheese steak and am surprised there’s no bread involved. Just chips with meat and cheese poured over it. Like poutine, but posher. It’s rather nice.

The event finishes at nine, which is fine by me. I fancy an early night. Being stroked to slumber by the soft hands of Laphroaig.

Hop Head Farms
4630 W Hickory Rd,
Hickory Corners, MI 49060.

1120 W Grand Ave #1,
Chicago, IL 60642

Goose Island Taproom
1800 W Fulton St,
Chicago, IL 60612.

Disclaimer: my trip was paid for by Goose Island as part of my consultancy fee.

Monday, 26 September 2016

DDR Labels

You can never have too many obsessions. If you've endless attic space.

Fortunately, beer labels take up fuck all room. Even Dolores doesn't object: "Just as long as it isn't more stinky books, Ronald."

DDR labels. Why do they obsess me? Because I neglected to collect them? I have a bad case of Ostalgie? They have their own distinctive aesthetic?

All three obviously. With a syrup of personal memories poured over the top.

I can't help searching for DDR label collections on ebay. They're so tempting, I try not to look too often. All those pretty labels. Just awaiting for a good home.

"I've no idea how that happened."

"You bought 450 labels."

"They only cost 40-odd euros. Bargain. I can use them on my blog. I'm always banging on about the good old DDR days."

"You didn't live there, Ronald. It was very different for us. You only saw the best bits."

"I went to Merseburg."

"I lived there."

She's trumped me with that.

Let's move on and look at some of my . . . .

Almost forgot. Due to my incompetence on ebay, I sort of bought another 300 DDR labels. It really was an accident, I told her. Dolores just shrugged her shoulders. "Better than buying lots of smelly books" I saw her thinking.

Back to the pretty labels. Enjoy.

Sunday, 25 September 2016

Chicago day two

I awake to the noisy whir of a helicopter. Sounds as if it’s about to wreak rotor wrath on my window.

Minutes of chopping chunder later, I take a look.

A helicopter is right outside my window. Well, above the building on the other side of the street. Dropping some ventilation gear onto the roof.

A relatively late start allows me to take advantage of the downstairs egg and bacon opportunities. And have a decent lie in. I feel like a new man. A much older, sicker man. No, honestly, I don't feel that bad. Considering I was up for 24 hours yesterday. Or was that tomorrow? I'm feeling a bit confused day-wise.

A fried breakfast always perks me up. Almost as much as a quickly downed double whisky. When I jump in a taxi, I'm totally sure it's daytime, even if I'm not totally certain which day of the week it is. Saturday? Monday? Sunday. Must be Sunday. Because Mike Siegel told me Sunday was media day. That's why I'm on the way to the studio of Good Beer Hunting.

It's quite warm and I'm quite early. Standing on the sun-scorched pavement outside the studio waiting for the others to turn up, isn't my idea of a funny, fun, fun time. I shift to the street's shady side to snap some snaps.

Michael Kaiser turns up first. Just about on time. The realisation that there’s draught beer soon soothes any sores of annoyance. I’m impressed. And have a beer in my hand.

Mike, topped by an impressive cowboy hat, arrives when I’m about ready for a refill.

We adjourn to a mike-topped table, crack the Brewery Yard we’re pimping and start to chat about beer. About five minutes in, I realise the crafty bastard has already started recording. I’m tempted to spew a stinking stew of swearing, but I’m too busy talking.

It seems to go well. The quality really upping when I manage to shout the others down. At least that’s my recollection. Thankfully, there’s no documentary evidence. Oh, shit. It was a podcast.

No time to rest. But enough to finish our beers. A cab takes us to our next gig. At the Goose Island brewery. A Jeff Alworth podcast

We seek an empty office after seeking something more soothing at the bar. I speak better with a beer in hand. Especially when there’s video. Stops me fiddling with other things.

No video here: it’s a speaker phone job. But a beer in hand is obviously better than no beer.

We don’t repeat ourselves too much. I think. I struggle to remember what I’ve said anytime I speak. Even when it’s whether Alexei is or isn’t allowed to drink vodka. 

“Daaad, you said I could.”

“Did I? When did I say that?”

“When you were drunk, Dad.”

“I can’t remember that.”

“Exactly, Dad, you were drunk.”

I’ve not seen the Goose Island taproom before. They didn’t have one last time around. Given the location – industrial estate with no nearby housing – I’m surprised they have enough custom. Then I remember the location of Weihenstephaner: industrial estate with no nearby housing. They seem to do OK.

Our final media date, with Christopher Quinn of The Beer Temple (a specialist beer shop), awaits. It’s taking place in Owen & Engine, an English-themed pub. With lots of dark wood, it’s sort of like a pub. But not quite. Just as attempts at pubs outside the UK never are. I don’t know why, but no matter how accurately the fixtures are mimicked, the atmosphere is never right.

The recording takes place in the upstairs, which isn’t open at the moment. Obviously. Otherwise it would be way too noisy. A pint in front of me is all I need. And that’s what I have. Should be enough to see me through. We chat some more about Brewery Yard and about historic brewing. I could do that all day. Which I sort of have.

Interview over, we adjourn to Fat Willy's Rib Shack for some barbecue. Pulled pork, collared greens and baked beans is what I have. It’s rather nice, but I can’t manage to finish it all off. I’m not as big an eater as I look. Not anymore. I used to eat a whole loaf of bread a day when I was a student.

Even though it’s not that late, I‘m as knackered as ten knackered sticks when my taxi drops me back at my hotel. I watch a little crap TV. Then Laphroaig waves me off as I board the sleepline train.

Good Beer Hunting Studio
3624 W Wrightwood Ave,
Chicago, IL 60647.
Tel: +1 773-627-7709

Goose Island Taproom
1800 W Fulton St,
Chicago, IL 60612.

Owen & Engine
2700 N Western Ave,
Chicago, IL 60647.

The Beer Temple
3185 N Elston Ave,
Chicago, IL 6061.

Fat Willy's Rib Shack
2416 W Schubert Ave,
Chicago, IL 60647.

Disclaimer: my trip was paid for by Goose Island as part of my consultancy fee.

Saturday, 24 September 2016

Let's Brew - 1947 Shepherd Neame BB

Since we’ve had Shepherd Neame’s watery Mild from 1947, we may as well have their watery Ordinary Bitter, too.

Don’t get the idea that I’m blaming them or anything. Brewers had no option but to brew very low-gravity beers in the immediate aftermath of WW II. It was called Austerity Britain for a good reason.

This beer is a real, real rarity. Especially in the difficult years after the war. Because it’s essentially an all-malt beer. The tiny percentage of diastatic malt extract I’m sure is just there for mash efficiency purposes. The percentage is so tiny it couldn’t have contributed anything to the flavour or character of the beer.

After the Free Mash Tun Act of 1880 almost no-one brewed all-malt. I’m straining my mind to think of any that I’ve seen. The occasional one-off, but that’s about it. Whereas Shepherd Neame used only malt in their Pale Ales from 1920 right through to the 1960’s. With the exception of WW II, when they were compelled to use flaked barley by the government.

The relatively high attenuation of this beer might have left it tasting a little thin. Though maybe the fact there were no adjuncts helped thicken up the body.

Around half the hops are designated “SN” in the record. I assume this means that they were from Shepherd Neame’s own hop gardens. The dry hops are a guess as the records don’t list them. It would have been strange indeed if a Bitter weren’t dry hopped.

1947 Shepherd Neame BB
pale malt 7.00 lb 99.01%
malt extract 0.07 lb 0.99%
Fuggles 120 mins 0.75 oz
Goldings 30 mins 0.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.25 oz
OG 1031.3
FG 1006.6
ABV 3.27
Apparent attenuation 78.91%
IBU 19
Mash at 152º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 62.75º F
Yeast a Southern English Ale yeast

Friday, 23 September 2016

Chicago day one

Being a cheapskate, I take the 197 bus to the airport. A bargain at just over 2 euros. Unlike the extortionate taxi fare.

I'm in plenty of time at Schiphol. About two hours before my flight is due to depart. Just as well. After checking in my bag, I'm surprised by an enormous queue at security. Surprising and disappointing. Since they introduced centralised security checking for non-Schengen flights, I've always breezed through.

It takes 40 minutes before I'm safely airside. Seriously cutting into my drinking at the bar time. After nipping into duty free to nab a bottle of Laphroaig, I finally park my sorry arse at the bar closest to the gate. Time is pressing, leaving me only enough time for a small Heineken and a large Jamesons. Bit of a bummer that. My rusty bits are in need of a good oiling before jumping on a transatlantic flight.

Boarding is at an advanced stage by the time I troll up at the gate. I'm flying with KLM. For the very good reason that I want to keep my silver status. And the free checked-in bags that come with it. As I'm in economy comfort, there's no rush to board. One of the reasons I'm prepared to divvy up extra dosh for the privilege.

Having booked relatively late, I've a window rather than my usual aisle seat. Which does at least have the advantage of occasionally something outside to distract me. I pick up my usual routine of bolting on noise-cancelling headphones and watching crap films. The choice isn't great on KLM. But there's enough to occupy me for eight hours or so.

I always dread US immigration. Not because I'm worried they won't let me in, but because of the queues. This time, because I've already entered once on my ESTA and my fingerprints are on file, I can use a machine instead of queuing up to be processed by an official. Result. I'm through so quickly, I have to wait for my bag. Before I know it I'm bouncing along the motorway in a cab.

O'Hare is quite a way out and I'm staying pretty centrally, just off Michigan Avenue. The journey takes a while. Yet still costs around the same as the 10-minute journey from Schiphol to my home. As we get closer to the centre I start getting the big city feeling. That rush of energy that oozes from the pavement. I'm having fun already.

Mike Siegel, my co-conspirator from Goose Island is at the hotel bar and spots me as I enter. We've arranged to meet at 4 pm and I'm a little late. But I see he's been keeping himself amused. I rush upstairs to dump my bags and freshen up. Knocking off a quick email to Dolores to let her know I've arrived alive and conscious. Pretty much. I don't take too long about everything. There are several beers with my name on them around the city.

Tyler Jackson and Thomas Thorpe of Present Tense Fine Ales are there when I come down from my room.We don't linger at the hotel bar, instead heading straight off to my next rendezvous, at Rock Bottom. Mike tells me that it used to be one of the few decent spots for beer downtown, back in the days he worked around here.

The person I've arranged to meet are already here. English expat Les Howarth plus  Introductions over, we pull the bar up to ourselves and I wrap my lips around the first beer of the trip. Something IPA-ey. That's usually where I start.

We don't eat at Rock Bottom, as our next stop is the Billy Goat Tavern, famous for its double cheeseburger. And featuring in a Saturday Night Live sketch. It dates from the 1930's and used to be the haunt of journalists, back in the glory days of Chicago newspapers. Its location is pretty weird. At some point the street level was raised one storey, leaving the Billy Goat looking like it's in the basement of a multi-storey car park.

The furnishings are simple to the point of Spartan: plastic-topped tables and metal-framed chairs. A bar counter runs the full length of two walls, with a food counter opposite. There are a few OK beer options and as soon as we've ordered food - cheeseburgers, obviously - we load up with mugs of something dark.

The lads from Present Tense have a cask of ESB that "needs finishing". Sounds like a challenge to me. We head for their brewery, which rather exotically is located in a garage in a friend's back yard.

It's not huge. The brewing kit is made from converted kegs and can't be more than a half barrel. But the beer is spot on and soon thumping several spots very hard. The night is warm and the garage door is left open. I'm in a cosy and comfortable place. Enjoying the crackle of the night outside and the cackle of conversation inside. A few more people arrive and soon killing the cask is no longer much of a challenge.

I hold up well, but hit a wall a little after midnight. Saying "It's a night", I jump in a cab and return to my hotel.

As we weave our way back through the darkened streets, lights leap and buildings blur. As if the wall I hit has fallen on top of me. No need to bid the day farewell in the company of friend Laphroaig. I'm totally knacked.

Present Tense Fine Ales

Rock Bottom Restaurant & Brewery
1 W Grand Ave,
Chicago, IL 60610.

Billy Goat Tavern
430 N Michigan Ave,
Chicago, IL 60611.

Thursday, 22 September 2016

Shepherd Neame

Obsessive is all 73 of my middle names. But collecting brewing records is my biggest obsession. I claim it's to record brewing's true past. Really I'm just a nosy git.

John Humphries of Shepherd Neame graciously invited me come and have a rustle through the brewery's undercrackers. Wasn't going to turn that down. The brewery has outlasted most, including a couple of royal dynasties. Bound to be some good stuff.

Thought I'd give you a quick overview of what I dug out of the grime. There's always lots of dirt involved in archive research. My hands were black by the end of the afternonn. I'm amazed that Kathryn Tye, who helped me get settled in and prise open a cabinet, shook my hand at the end. Before I'd had chance to scrub off the filth.

Highlight is a brewing log from 1798. Now I just have to read the bloody thing. Paper must have been expensive back then looking at how tiny the handwriting is. I'll need a while.

The 20th-century records are pretty decent. Except for the brewer in the 1930's with the terrible handwriting. It's almost as bad as mine. And one really, really annoting feature.

The first records I looked at were a real disappointment. Just fermentaion records. I thought I was screwed. Then realised the brewing records were a different set of books. The false start was really a blessing. Had I seen the brewing records first, I might not have realised the fermentation records were elsewhere.

I didn't match everything up. As not all the fermentation records were to hand. But they did for 1956. For the beer* that was brewed on the day I was born.

* A watery Bitter, if you're interested.

Wednesday, 21 September 2016

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1947 Shepherd Neame MB

It’s a special day. As is every day I get my hands on a new set of brewing records. Especially when it’s a brewery whose beers I’ve supped.

And when I can combine the records with my post-war austerity obsession, I’m like a pig on a spit. No, pig in shit, that’s what I meant. (That image of me roasting a spit will now live with me forever.) Throw in a lovely watery Mild recipe and paradise is adjacent.

For the day, it’s a pretty honest recipe. No adjuncts, just brewing sugar and malt extract. They must have dropped the obligatory flaked barley of the late war years as soon as they could. Good on them.

The sugar bill is slightly simplified. There was a bit of something that looked like WWCS. I just bumped up the No. 3.

1947 Shepherd Neame MB
pale malt 3.75 lb 68.18%
no. 3 sugar 1.00 lb 18.18%
malt extract 0.75 lb 13.64%
Fuggles 120 mins 0.50 oz
Goldings 30 mins 0.50 oz
OG 1027.1
FG 1005.5
ABV 2.86
Apparent attenuation 79.70%
IBU 15
Mash at 156º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 120 minutes
pitching temp 63º F
Yeast Go to a Shepherd Neame pub, buy a pint of cask beer. If it's nice and fresh, buy another pint and surreptitiously pour it into a bottle, add a half teaspoon of sugar and wait 3 days. Carefully decant most of the beer into a glass and drink. Add malt extract and leave in a warm place for a few days.
Or just use a Southern English Ale yeast

Lots more to come.

Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Chicago to Margate

Last week was an interesting one. And challenging, fitting in as it did two foreign trips.

First was Chicago*, where I was in town to help launch my collaboration beer with Goose Island: Brewery Yard. A Stock Pale Ale brewed the 19th-century way. A project I’ve been trying to get off the ground for several years. It was a great feeling to finally have it in the hands of the drinking public.

I finally got a glimpse of downtown Chicago, something I missed on my last visit. Then I just had two days in town. Less than 48 hours after my flight in from Toronto was delayed. I’m a big fan of early skyscrapers and Chicago has some crackers. There’s something about a gothic tower I just love. The Woolworth Building on Manhattan has always been a favourite and Chicago has a few that match it.

The beer launch went pretty well. The audience listened attentively and laughed when they were supposed to. And there were some sensible questions at the end.

Mike Siegel, the brewer I’ve been working with at Goose Island took some time to show me more of the city. Mostly breweries and pubs. Plus feed me some BBQ. All very much appreciated.

I arrived back in Amsterdam on Thursday morning. Dumped my bags, showered, changed my clothes and after a few hours jumped into Mikey’s car. Bound for the chunnel and Margate. It was all rather surreal.

Margate was mostly just a beer, bacon and pie trip. With some shopping. Nothing even vaguely geeky, for the most part. Just trailing around ordinary boozers drinking standard cask fare. And the occasional evil keg. Not even the “good” evil keg, but the old-fashioned “bad” evil keg. There are times to replace my geek head with my drinking head. This was one.

I did have a few nerdy hours. In nearby Faversham at Shepherd Neame. Who said I could come and look in their archive. Not the sort of chance I’m going to pass up. I snapped 23 of their brewing books, all 20th century except for one. The oldest brewing record I’ve yet had in my hands, dating to 1798.

Sunday morning we headed back. Not that I’ve long in Amsterdam. Thursday I’m off to London for another Goose Island launch. What a jetsetter I am. Or an idiot who’s killing himself as Dolores describes me.

* Goose Island paid for my trip as part of their contractual obligations for my consultancy work.

Monday, 19 September 2016

More low-key travel

I've a whole array of unfinished posts. It's quite scary, really. Now I need some quick posts to cover a week of travelling, it's time to dust off one and sort of finish it.

It's about a trip to Nijmegen me and Dolores made last winter. Yes, it's taken me the best part of a year to get around to finishing it off. What a lazy bastard I am.

Dolores had never been to Nijmegen before. "Let's go there, then." I said. We had to go somewhere. Our cheap day tickets expired in a few days. It was a case of use them or lose them.

We'd bought the tickets to travel to the Kerstbierfestival in Essen. Then discovered it was all ticket and sold out on the day we planned attending. Bum. Time to find another destination. Quickly. Harlingen - which looks lovely - was too complcated a journey. I couldn't persuade Dolores to visit Zwolle. And Arnhem was out because "the station is too far from the centre". Options running short, we finally settled on Nijmegen.

I must be mellowing. Because I didn't buy any cans for the train in the station. Just a newspaper. The journey was magical. A low, grey sky barely illuminating the washed out verdure of the fields. Not that I was paying the scenery much attention. Too busy reading Private Eye. I've managed to get two issues behind and I needed to catch up. At least that was my excuse. I let Dolores devour the paper.

Considering it's vomitting distance from the German border, the trip to Nijmegen is short, just under 90 minutes. And then just a few minutes' walk into the centre. Dolores was keen on dropping by Primark to get some clothes, so we headed there first. It was mobbed. But Dolores managed to pick up somedead cheap clothes for her and the kids.

Shopping out of the way, it as time for refreshment. Nijmegen is a slightly odd town, mostly as a result of heavy wartime damage. The Americans accidentally bombed it, believing it was in Germany. It means that a lot of the city centre is compased of fairly bland postwar buildings. Though some of the older fabric of the city has survived.

One of those bits is now a brewery, Stadsbrouwerij De Hemel. Though it is sort of hidden around the back of the city centre, the sole older building is a sea of modern flats. It's all a bit odd.

They've been around for a fair while and have built up a reasonable reputation. For a long time it was the only brewery in town, though now it has several companions. Brewing is booming in the city. As it is in many parts of Holland.

Inside there are two rather grand rooms, with high ceilings and at atmosphere of the past. One houses the brewing kit, the other the bar. We settled in the one containing the bar and set about resolving our refreshment issues. Beer and food - what more could you need? A happy hour or two was spent gnawing away at out hunger and thirst.

On our way into town I'd noticed a beer shop, De Bierhoeder. Seemed a shame to just walk past it again, so in we popped. They had a very decent array of locally-brewed beers, of which I pliucked a dozen or so from the shelves. I hadn't been looking at the prices and had quite a shock when I came to pay. Many were over 3 euros a pop.

Still, at least I had something to pop on the journey back. And much classier than a can of Heineken.

Stadsbrouwerij De Hemel
Franseplaats 1,
024-360 61 67

De Bierhoeder
Bloemerstraat 86
6511 EM Nijmegen
Tel: +31 24 3601620

Sunday, 18 September 2016

Tetley’s acquisitions

Not all breweries took the same route to greatness. That’s one of the things I’m starting to realise. Tetley and Allied Breweries came into existence in quite a different way to Whitbread or Bass Charrington.

In the case of the latter two, they were the result of a large number of acquisitions and mergers. Bass Charrington started with Hammonds taking over multiple Northern breweries, then merging with Charrington which had also bought serval breweries and finally hooking up with Bass M & B. The story was similar at Whitbread, which made multiple purchases of brewers that were often the result of mergers themselves.

As you can see from the table, Tetley made a small number of large purchases. Before merging with first Walker Cain then with Ansells and Ind Coope to form Allied breweries. Because Allied was the result of the merger of a relatively small number of large breweries, they operated far fewer plants initially than other Big Six brewers: Leeds, Warrington, Birmingham, Burton-on-Trent, Alloa and Romford. That was it.

While Bass and Whitbread spent the 1960’s and 1970’s trying to rationalise their brewing operations, Allied didn’t need to close many breweries. And when they did close one, Ansells, it because of poor labour relations, not rationalisation.

Tetley acquisitions
Year Company Town tied houses
1897 Joshua Tetley Leeds 102
1954 Duncan Gilmour Sheffield 500
1959 William Whitaker Bradford
1960 Melbourne Leeds 345
1960 Walker Cain Warrington
The Brewing Industry: a Guide to Historical Records" edited by Leslie Richmond and Alison Turton, 1990, pages 231 and 326

When Tetley merged with Walker Cain, it owned 2,771 pubs.*

* “The Brewing Industry: a Guide to Historical Records" edited by Leslie Richmond and Alison Turton, 1990, page 326

Saturday, 17 September 2016

Let's Brew - 1949 William Younger Pale XXPS

Another exciting beer from the colourful late 1940’s. Only joking. I realise the period was as grey as its beers were watery.

This is so exciting. Because this is a beer I drank quite often, it being one of Younger’s main cask beers. Though it was sold under different names: 70/- in Scotland, Scotch in England. It seems to have been introduced just after WW I, possibly as a reaction to the drop in gravity of their former flagship Pale Ale, XXP. Post-war, XXP became 60/-. So a beer which had originally been an IPA, ended up as Dark Mild. Now there’s a weird transformation. But I digress.

On paper, this looks very similar to the beer I drank in the 1970’s and 1980’s. The gravity, 1037º, is identical. Though I suspect the recipe was rather different by then. I can’t imagine that they continued to use flaked barley. I wonder if they went back to grits when maize became available again?

I know from a 1960 document that XXPS came in three different colours: 5, 6 and 9 SRM. The first was the as-brewed number, which is pretty close to the figure BeerSmith spat out.

Not much else to say, other than that this looks like an archetypal post-war Ordinary Bitter. Maybe the bitterness is a little below average.

1949 William Younger Pale XXPS
pale malt 7.25 lb 85.29%
flaked barley 1.25 lb 14.71%
Fuggles 90 min 0.50 oz
Fuggles 60 min 0.50 oz
Fuggles 30 min 0.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.25 oz
OG 1037
FG 1011
ABV 3.44
Apparent attenuation 70.27%
IBU 21
Mash at 153º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 75 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

Friday, 16 September 2016

Business good for Tetley (part three)

A final look at Tetley in the 1950’s.

Policy of improvements
Our licensed properties have been maintained in good repair during the year and we are always endeavouring to improve as far as we can both the service offered to the public and also the comforts and accommodation provided for the tenants who manage them so well for us. During the past year we opened two new public houses, one in Leeds and one near Barnsley, giving up licences in the case of one them taken from other houses which have been closed. In the coming year we hope to start building one or two more houses on new housing estates.

I do not wish to prophesy as to the future, but I can tell you that since September 30 sales have been well maintained and it is to say that owing to the fall in the price of barley there will be some reduction in the cost of malt. At the same time I must confess that I was too sanguine last year when I forecast that our new drum maltings should be fully employed in the spring of 1955. They will be in partial production during next year but probably not in full operation until October, 1955.

In conclusion I should like to pay tribute to the work done by all the men and women employed by the group The results achieved are due to a large extent the devoted services rendered by them. I am sure that all stockholders will wish to Join me in saying "thank you.”

I now beg to move that the statement of accounts for the year ended September 30. 1954, as audited, together with the directors’ report, be and are hereby approved and adopted and I will ask Mr M. H. Tetley to second this motion. The Report and Accounts were then unanimously adopted, the dividend approved as proposed by the directors and the formal business duly transacted, the proceedings ending with a vote of thanks to the chairman for presiding.”
Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer - Monday 03 January 1955, page 3.

Tetley had an impressive tied house estate, at least in Leeds. Lots of high-quality late Victorian and Edwardian pubs. The Garden Gate, The Adelphi, The Cardigan Arms and the Rising Sun. the latter being one of the top-notch houses they acquired when the bought rival Leeds brewery Melbourne. They were noted for having spectacular pubs.

Trading in licences – usually more than one – to be able to build a new pub was common practice. Small, old-fashioned pubs in districts where a brewery owned many were usually the ones sacrificed. Pubs on new housing estates were an attractive proposition because there was usually limited competition.

While a fall in the barley – and hence malt – price would have been welcome, it wouldn’t really have had much of an impact on Tetley’s costs, as the price of raw materials were only a small part of their overall costs, which were dominated by the beer tax.

I’ll end with analyses of a few of Tetley’s beers:

Tetley beers 1949 - 1960
Year Beer Style Price per pint d package OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation colour
1949 Dark Ale Brown Ale 13 bottled 1029.8 1003.4 3.44 88.59% 48
1950 Family Ale Brown Ale 15.5 bottled 1030.1 1003.4 3.48 88.70% 52
1952 Family Ale Brown Ale 15 bottled 1035.5 1009 3.44 74.65% 54
1952 X Mild 13 draught 1031.3 58
1952 Pale Ale Pale Ale 16 draught 1036.3 20
1953 X Mild 13 draught 1031.4 58
1953 Pale Ale Pale Ale 16 draught 1037.3 20
1954 Family Ale Brown Ale 24 bottled 1035.1 1007.2 3.62 79.49% 57
1955 Bitter Pale Ale 25 bottled 1037.1 1004 4.32 89.22% 23
1959 Bitter Ale Pale Ale 21 bottled 1039 1006.1 4.11 84.36% 23
1960 Mild Ale Mild 12 draught 1031.9 1003.6 3.54 88.71% 60
1960 Bitter Pale Ale 16 draught 1037.9 1003.7 4.28 90.24% 20
Truman Gravity Book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number B/THB/C/252
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002

It’s a bit dull, as there are only really two beers in the table. Family Ale was the name for the bottled version of their Dark Mild. Which, as you can see, wasn’t very dark. The specs look very similar to the Tetley’s Mild and Bitter I drank in the 1970’s.

Thursday, 15 September 2016

Wet hops at Goose Island

I spent Monday at Goose Island helping, well, watching , really, a wet hop beer brewed.

It was lots of fun. Then again, hanging around in a brewery is always fun. But they're a good bunch the brewers at Goose Island. Making it even more fun. The beer was brewed in their 2-barrel pilot plant. And the 50 pounds of wet Chinooks pretty much filled the pot.

The smell of the hops was just amazing. And they were so sticky when you rubbed them between your hands. Interestingly, they looked really similar to the wild Amsterdam hops Dolores picked last week.

Not many words this time. Just some lovely pictures.

My trip to Chicago was paid for by Goose Island as part of their contractual obligations for our Brewery Yard collaboration beer.

Wednesday, 14 September 2016

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1949 William Younger No. 3 Btlg

No. 3 is a personal favourite of mine. Having drunk when it was still brewed by William Younger has left me with a lingering affection for the beer.

Which explains why I keep bothering you with recipes for it. I’m hoping eventually I’ll get some in my glass. Though this is quite a tame looking version, what with its low level of hopping and modest OG.

As I’ve been explaining, foreign hops disappeared for the most part from British beer after WW II. For the simple reason that they weren’t required any more. The UK was capable of growing all the hops it needed. Which certainly hadn’t been true for the second half of the 19th century and some of the early 20th. You occasionally see classy continental hops like Saaz or Hallertau, but US hops had disappeared entirely from British beer.

It’s strange that Younger’s grists actually appear to have improved in quality due to government restrictions. The 1933 version of No. 3 contained 41% grits. I wonder if drinkers noticed? If they did, they’d probably have complained that the beer didn’t taste like it used to. During the whole interwar period Younger’s beers had crazy levels of grits in them. People must have got used to it.

I wouldn’t pay too much attention to the colour listed. Third-party analyses I have of the beer put the colour somewhere in the 20’s on the SRM scale.

1949 William Younger No. 3 Btlg
pale malt 9.75 lb 88.64%
flaked barley 1.25 lb 11.36%
Fuggles 90 min 0.75 oz
Fuggles 60 min 0.50 oz
Fuggles 30 min 0.50 oz
Goldings dry hops 0.25 oz
OG 1047
FG 1012
ABV 4.63
Apparent attenuation 74.47%
IBU 22
Mash at 153º F
Sparge at 160º F
Boil time 75 minutes
pitching temp 61º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

Tuesday, 13 September 2016

Business good for Tetley (part two)

We’re back in mid-1950’s Leeds looking at Tetley’s annual report.

It looks as if they were making healthy profits and paying a reasonable dividend. Though as we saw last time, a large proportion of the money they earned was paid in beer duty.

Group profit and dividend
Trading results of the group show a net profit before taxation £719,682 but the deduction of taxation at the rate of 11s. 11d. in the pound as against 11s. 8d last year reduces the group net profit to £291,527 as against £259,465 a year ago.

We have recommended the payment of a final dividend of 7% on the increased capital which, with the interim dividend already paid, makes a fractional percentage increase on last year’s dividend on a smaller capital. We also suggest that the sum of £50,000 should be transferred general reserve and £50,000 to property improvements reserve and that £216,771 should be carried forward. As mentioned in the chairman’s statement published with the accounts, our board has been engaged since last March in co-ordinating the working of Duncan Gilmour & Co and its subsidiaries with the activities of the parent company. We have taken over already the production of beer to be sold by certain of Duncan Gilmour’s subsidiaries and over a period of years we hope gradually to supply the demands of the whole Duncan Gilmour group from our Leeds brewery. We are also contemplating the eventual building of new bottling store in the Sheffield area which should greatly increase our capacity for producing bottled beer. Various companies in the group have substantial interests in the wine and spirit trade both in this country and abroad. These interests are also in process of co-ordination so as to obtain the maximum results therefrom. We are also engaged in the survey of the transport and carriage facilities of the group with a view to effecting economies in this most expensive charge our trading.”
Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer - Monday 03 January 1955, page 3.

Improving their tied estate was a priority for all forward-looking breweries. Better pubs meant more beer was sold. It was an investment in the future growth of the business. In the period 1940 to 1950 restrictions on building work and a shortage of materials meant very little work could be carried. Leaving breweries with a backlog of maintenance on their pubs.

I didn’t know much about Duncan Gilmour, so I looked them up. This is what I found.

Duncan Gilmour and Co. started as a wine merchant in Sheffield in 1831. In 1892 the company diversified into brewing when it bought two breweries on Merseyside: United Breweries (Liverpool) and the Windsor Brewery. In the early 20th century it purchased several breweries in and around Sheffield: W.H. Birks & Co. (1900), H.W. Dearden (1901), Whitmarsh, Watson & Co. Ltd. (1906) and Wm. Greaves & Co. Ltd. (1920). In the process the company built up a considerable tied estate. When it was taken over by Tetley in 1954 Duncan Gilmour had 148 pubs in Sheffield and a further 350 pubs in Merseyside supplied by the Windsor Brewery. It stopped brewing sometime in the early 1960's.*

With 500 pubs it was a considerable addition to Tetley’s estate, especially west of the Pennines. Naturally Tetley would seek to serve them from the brewery in Leeds. Presumably the bottling store in Sheffield was built on land owned by Duncan Gilmour.

I leave you with the only Duncan Gilmour analyses I have:

Duncan Gilmour beers 1948 - 1952
Year Beer Style Price per pint d package OG FG colour ABV App. Atten-uation
1952 Milk Round Stout Stout 22 bottled 1038.1 1012.4 11B + 1R 3.32 67.45%
1948 Export Quality Golden PA Pale Ale bottled 1053.1 1011.8 21 5.38 77.78%
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002

* A synopsis of information in "The Brewing Industry: a Guide to Historical Records" edited by Leslie Richmond and Alison Turton, 1990, page 154.